Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains one of the world’s deadliest communicable diseases with the greatest impact in low and middle income countries. It is also a major disease of poverty, closely associated with overcrowding and malnutrition. The infection usually attacks the lungs and can also infect other parts of the body. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR)and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains mean that research on the rapid detection of genetic mutations associated with resistance, the development of new drugs, and the investigation of new approaches to therapy such as enhancement of host immunity is critical. A number of teams within the Centre focus on Mycobacterial research.